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Cardone; director, J. He has worked as an expert in the design of new waterfloods and the operation of existing waterflood projects in Asia, North America, Europe, and Africa. He provided technical leadership for 30 waterflooded reservoirs offshore West Africa for nine years. He currently serves as a corporate reserves auditor specializing in waterflood and EOR reserve estimates. He also serves as the principal researcher for thermal horizontal wells and thermal subsurface integrity management for Chevron Energy Technology Research Company.
Extended-reach wells present difficult drilling challenges, which if inadequately understood and addressed can yield significant downside risks and extensive non-productive time NPT. These challenges are mainly due to complex well designs that combine high-deviation and extended-reach wellbores with difficult geology and hostile environments. Understanding the challenges and developing solutions are important to deliver the well with the proper casing specifications for production purposes. Geomechanically, due to their long reaches and high deviations, borehole instability and lost circulations are particularly dominant in the overburden shale sections of extended-reach and horizontal wells.
However, a good understanding of the rock failure mechanisms and an innovative use of the wellbore strengthening techniques can mitigate these geomechanical challenges through integration with good drilling practices such as efficient equivalent circulating density ECD management and effective hole-cleaning strategies. These secondary influences further stress the importance of incorporating geomechanical understanding in drilling fluids formulation. This presentation focuses on the geomechanical challenges of drilling extended-reach wells. It highlights the need to integrate geomechanical solutions with appropriate drilling practices, particularly solutions based on good understanding of the intricate relationship between borehole stability, lost circulation, ECD, hole cleaning and bottom-hole assembly BHA optimizations in overcoming the drilling performance limiters.
A case history will be presented as an example. See Hong Ong received his B. He has more 30 years of world-wide experience in petroleum engineering and petroleum-related geomechanics research and applications. His professional career includes 17 years at Baker Hughes where he is serving in various advisory, technical and managerial capacities, and 17 years at PETRONAS where he had management and operational responsibilities.
See Hong holds several US patents and has many publications in petroleum geomechanics. A water saturation vs. A good Swh function ensures the three independent sources of fluid distribution data are consistent. These being the core, formation pressure and electrical log data. The Swh function must be simple to apply, especially in reservoirs where it is difficult to map permeability or where there appears to be multiple contacts. It must accurately upscale the log and core derived water saturations to the reservoir model cell sizes.
This presentation clarifies the often misunderstood definitions for the free-water-level, transition zone and irreducible water saturation. Using capillary pressure theory and the concept of fractals, a practical Swh function is derived. Logs and core data from eleven fields, with very different porosity and permeability characteristics, depositional environments and geological age are compared.
This study demonstrated how this Swh function is independent of permeability and litho-facies type and accurately describes the reservoir fluid distribution. The shape of the Swh function shows that of the transition zone is related more to pore geometry rather than porosity or permeability alone. A number of case studies are presented showing the excellent match between the function and well data. The function makes an accurate prediction of water saturations even in wells where the resistivity log was not run due to well conditions.
The function defines the free water level, the hydrocarbon to water contact, net reservoir and the irreducible water saturation for the reservoir model. The fractal function provides a simple way to quality control electrical log and core data and justifies using core plug sized samples to model water saturations on the reservoir scale.
He also holds BSc Hons. He is currently a Principal Petrophysicist with Baker Hughes and has 40 Years industry experience in formation evaluation and reservoir description. Over the past few years, significant advancements have been made in completion and stimulation designs in horizontal wells in unconventional plays, with the primary driver being the improvement of fracture contact area in these very low permeability reservoirs, to improve production volumes and recoveries. Fracture contact area with plug-and-perf or sliding sleeve systems have been intensified by increasing the density of contact points in the formation as well as proppant amount with great success.
While these parameters have been optimized, other important parameters such as fracture conductivity and connectivity have been largely neglected. In the journey to improving contact area, proppant conductivity is often sacrified to save costs, and fracture stimulation treatments are overflushed in order to maximize operational efficiencies on multi-well pads. This presentation will highlight the importance of all of these parameters, and provides steps that can be taken to further optimize and enhance well producitivity and economics in the shale plays.
Wadhah Al-Tailji is a Technical Manager at StrataGen, where he advises clients on completions and stimulation optimization in unconventional plays such as the Eagle Ford Shale, using fracture and reservoir modeling, analysis of large datasets, and field supervision of hydraulic fracture treatments. Before joining StrataGen in , he spent five years in field and region engineering roles at BJ Services Company in East Texas, where he was involved in stimulation and cementing services in formations such as the Cotton Valley Sands, James Lime, and Haynesville Shale.
Shale development in the US has been ongoing for at least the last decade, and many lessons can be learned from the US experience to help prevent air emissions and aquifer contamination in future developments around the world. Media reports and films such as "Gasland" imply that shale development is widely polluting fresh water aquifers and the atmosphere, with a wide range of estimates of contamination. This lecture examines the risk of contamination of aquifers through wellbores, either by hydrocarbon migration or hydraulic fracturing operations, and is primarily based on a comprehensive three-year study funded by the US National Science Foundation examining nearly 18, wells drilled in the Wattenberg Field in Colorado, plus other relevant studies.
In the midst of the Wattenberg field is heavy urban and agricultural development, with over 30, water wells interspersed with the oil and gas wells, resulting in a natural laboratory to measure aquifer contamination. Lessons learned have universal applications with clear relationships established between well construction methods in both conventional and unconventional wells and contamination risks.
He holds BSc, ME, and PhD degrees in petroleum engineering and has 30 years experience primarily in drilling, completions and workovers, with direct experience on over wells and involvement in horizontal wells and stimulations since Fleckenstein has numerous publications and patented technologies in multi-stage fracturing, annular seal testing, and downhole hydraulic rotation.
Fluids introduced into a wellbore for stimulation applications typically take the path of least resistance and therefore frequently go into areas where there are open flow paths. In many cases, these are neither areas you want to stimulate to enhance production by using a refracturing operation in unconventional reservoirs, nor areas from which formation damage needs to be removed by using an acidizing operation in carbonate reservoirs. Recently developed solid particulate degradable diverters promote efficient plugging, which helps to create nearly impermeable seals and aids fluid diversion.
These solid particulate materials are capable of degrading over time from a solid polymer state to a clear, nondamaging, liquid monomer solution, eliminating the need for mechanical removal after intervention. This presentation describes how different advanced modeling analytical and numerical , experimental, and field data mining approaches can be used to design and optimize different stages of fluid diversion. Application of lessons learned and engineered design key practices are shown by means of case studies.
Mojtaba P. His current research interests include completion and stimulation design and optimization. He has authored more than 45 technical papers and holds 7 pending US patent applications. He holds a Ph. Lost ciculation can be categorised into induced losses, and losses occuring in naturally fractured formation.
Although some progress using different lost circulation materials and different placement techniques has been done; curing losses is still an art and not a science. This presentation will cover the lost circulation challenges during the drilling, cementing and the consequences on the long term integrity of the well; and the solutions related to preventing the losses to occur as well as the mitigation meausres to combat the losses when they happen.
In addition newly developed solutions, techniques and diagnostic tool to mitigate lost circulation will be presented. He manages the global development of the well integrity cementing domain strategy, providing optimal well integrity cementing solutions for clients. Through his 19 years in the oil and gas industry, he has held various positions in Africa, the North Sea, the Middle East and Asia Pacific. He has authored more than 43 international journal and conference papers, he is the holder of three patents and was the recipient of the SPE Asia Pacific Regional Technical Award in Drilling Engineering.
Unconventional development propelled the United States to produce more oil than it imports for the first time in 20 years. Increased production of domestic oil and gas profoundly impacted economic growth and job creation for the U. During this evolution, there was a need to address environmental regulations and infrastructure requirements in order to access the sheer volume of resources.
In this lecture, the experience from U. S development is utilized to provide a fully-integrated workflow for developing shale oil and gas reservoirs from exploitation to production. Starting at the nano-scale, we will zoom into the pore structure to understand the storage and flow paths. Transitioning to the reservoir-scale, well testing and microseismic are utilized to define the flow capacity and estimate the stimulated volume.
Learnings from this subsurface characterization is used to guide well completion, flowback, and production operations. The diagnostic methodology specific to each operation can be applied to identify geologically favorable areas and the best completion practice. As development progresses, opportunities to improve recovery can be magnified through optimum well spacing and refracturing. As a final step in the development, determining an appropriate enhanced recovery method is essential to access the remaining resources.
Finally, example development scenarios are provided to demonstrate how a technically driven strategy is more effective to maximize value and make the unconventional revolution a global one. She has been instrumental in assimilating multiple disciplines to evaluate and develop unconventional reservoirs. Her numerous publications range from pore to reservoir scale analyses of unconventional reservoirs with an emphasis on enhancing oil recovery. The uses of automation in the drilling process are expanding and are typically resulting in improved drilling performance.
However, many of these projects struggle in the initial stages, often trying to overcome a common set of hurdles. Many of these hurdles are not technical challenges, but instead are related to people issues and the methods for implementing the solutions. This presentation covers the basics of drilling automation and describes the problems and solutions that have been found to improve the startup success for drilling automation.
Previously, Bill spent 20 years building real-time applications and drilling automation systems at National Oilwell Varco. Prior to that, Bill worked as a drilling engineer and as a university researcher. He has authored or coauthored 25 technical papers and holds 15 patents. The Completion Engineer integrates the requirements of a number of other disciplines Reservoir, Drilling, Production, etc to maximize the value of a hydrocarbon resource. This almost always requires evaluating competing and conflicting factors to determine the 'best' option for a particular problem. This talk will demonstrate a decision making process that allows the stakeholders to compare various options in a fair and roboust way.
Two real onshore or offshore examples will be reviewed depending on SPE chapter interest. Members will take away a new methodology on how to compare competing factors that influence a completion or well design. He has worked his way through the oil and gas production stream from Facilities and Production engineering to Completions in assignments across the USA and around the world Gabon, Congo, Egypt, Scotland, Russia, and Australia.
This breadth of experience comes across in the presentation and his ability to deal with different audiences with a wide range of challenges. He has authored or co-authored a number of papers ranging from polymer flood management to ice mechanics and most recently an innovative ICD system.
He is one of the most active members of SPE Connect where members can readily contact him with questions. The weakness of reservoir simulations is the lack of quantity and quality of the required input; their strength is the ability to vary one parameter at a time. Therefore, reservoir simulations are an appropriate tool to evaluate relative uncertainty but absolute forecasts can be misleading, leading to poor business decisions. As recovery processes increase in complexity, the impact of such decisions may have a major impact on the project viability.
A responsible use of reservoir simulations is discussed, addressing both technical users and decision makers. The danger of creating a false confidence in forecasts and the value of simulating complex processes are demonstrated with examples. Holding a PhD in Geophysics from the Technical University of Berlin, Germany, he dedicated 15 years of his oil-industry career to Enhanced Oil Recovery methods, focussing on thermal recovery and originating from 10 years of research in geothermal energy.
A and Canada. Reservoir simulation is a sophisticated technique of forecasting future recoverable volumes and production rates that is becoming commonplace in the management and development of oil and gas reservoirs, small and large.
These methods of analysis, while generally done for different purposes, require knowledge and expertise by the analyst typically a reservoir engineer to arrive at meaningful and reliable results. Increasingly, the simulation tool is being incorporated into the reserves process. However, as with any reservoir engineering technique, certain precautions must be taken when relying on reservoir simulation as the means for estimating reserves.
This discussion highlights some of the important facets one should consider when applying numerical simulation methods to use for, or augment, reserves estimates. The main take away will be an appreciation for the areas to focus on to arrive at meaningful and defendable estimates of reserves that are based on reservoir models. Dean C. Rietz , P. Prior to his current position, he managed the Ryder Scott Reservoir Simulation Group for approximately 15 years. He received a B. His past teaching experience includes in-house material balance schools at Chevron and Eclipse user courses at Intera.
Currently, Rietz teaches a two-day SPE simulation course and is an adjunct professor of reservoir simulation at the University of Houston. Rietz has published various papers related to reservoir modeling, including its application to reserves reporting. Rietz is a registered professional engineer in Texas and serves on the Petroleum Engineering Advisory Board for the University of Houston. As we have seen with the advent of the shale oil revolution in the United States, the development of new technology plays an important role in the oil and gas industry.
It can make a marginal project into a profitable development. Progressing technology, while dealing with significant risk, is a challenge that can be overcome through a technology qualification process. A Technology Qualification Program TQP provides a means to identifying the risks and taking the correct steps to mitigate it; not avoid it. This lecture summarizes the required steps involved in qualifying technology and how to keep track of technology development through the Technology Readiness Level TRL ranking system. In addition, some of the pitfalls in executing a TQP program are identified and discussed with emphasis on both component and system testing.
Examples are given to illustrate the danger in taking shortcuts when executing the qualification plan. Data from a recent subsea separation qualification program is presented comparing test results between CFDs, model fluid and actual crude testing at operating conditions.
Knowing the limitations of the tools and testing system selected is an important step in closing the gaps identified in the TQP program. Nonetheless, continued standardization of both the TQP and TRL is still necessary in order to reduce overall cost of developing technology and allow faster implementation. Ed started his career at Lummus working on a number of petrochemical projects, in which in gravitated towards mass transfer and separations. He also led the effort in designing and qualifying separation system for ultra-deep water, making ExxonMobil ready to meet their future needs.
He initiated and is presently guiding the joint industry Separations Technology Research STAR Program on qualifying separation equipment as technical chairman. Is it Effective? Is it Fair? Developing sound energy policies is difficult under the best circumstances. There is a delicate balance between government's need for revenue, modern society's need for energy and the producer's need for profitability to exploit resources.
Many factors can affect the results for all interested parties. Good policies require an appreciation for the interactions among oilfield development and operations, costs and prices, government taxes and regulations and many other factors that are often difficult to define accurately.
We live in a complex world that acts like a system with many interconnected components. Humans are ill equipped to understand its behavior. We instinctively focus on short term, local issues and simple cause and effect rather than the bigger picture. This reduces the likelihood that we can design effective policies that will work well over the long term for all stakeholders. There are no easy solutions in complex systems. We developed an approach using system models and regret analysis to find flexible and resilient tax policies, in spite of uncertainties, that would provide all parties with fair, profitable solutions — even though none might achieve their maximum goals.
It can also measure the relative benefits of existing energy policies and, potentially, help to improve them. These challenges will only become harder in the future and more important for the energy industry. Now is the time to pursue new ways of thinking to solve these problems.
He received his B. He has more than 40 years of experience in reservoir engineering and simulation, software development, environmental modeling, and policy analysis. He has worked on energy issues around the world for the largest multi-national energy companies, government agencies and major consulting firms. He has published numerous papers on reservoir simulation and energy policy analysis available in the SPE literature and elsewhere.
His work and research activities over the last decade have focused on developing improved energy policies that can benefit all stakeholders fairly. Collaborative Working helps assets to operate more efficiently and as one team, resulting in higher production, less cost, lower HSE exposure and higher morale. Shell has pursued the Digital Oilfield for the last fifteen years, under the heading of Smart Fields. The presentation will provide an overview of current Collaborative Work Environments. It will show examples of CWEs in different types of assets, and of the business value achieved.
The large scale implementation was achieved through a structured deployment programme, taking assets and projects through a standard design, implementation and embedding approach. To embed and sustain the new ways of working, a focus on the people aspects and change management has been critical. Each project included process design, awareness and training sessions and establishing coaches, support and continuous improvement. Frans van den Berg is currently an independent consultant in the design of Digital Oilfields and Collaborative Work Environments.
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He has worked 32 years in Shell, lastly in its global Smart Fields or Digital Oilfield program in the technology organisation in the Netherlands. There he led the global implementation of Collaborative Work Environments in Shell. He has held various positions as a petroleum engineer, head of petrohysics and asset development leader in operational roles and in global technology deployment. He worked ten years in Malaysia and Thailand. Seismic attributes are being used more and more often in the reservoir characterization and interpretation processes.
They proved to be very useful for the facies and reservoir properties distribution in the geological models, helping to improve their quality in the areas between the wells and areas without wells. The seismic attributes can help to better understand the stratigraphic and structural features, the sedimentation processes, lithology variations, etc. As a result, the estimation of the recoverable hydrocarbon volumes becomes more reliable and the development strategies will become more successful. Heavy Oil recovery traditionally starts with depletion drive and natural waterdrive with very low recoveries as a result.
The high energy cost of heating up the oil bearing formation to steam temperature and the associated high CO2 footprint make steam based technology less attractive today and many companies in the industry have been actively trying to find alternatives or improvements. As a result there are now many more energy efficient recovery technologies that can unlock heavy oil resources compared with only a decade ago.
This presentation will discuss breakthrough alternatives to steam based recovery as well as incremental improvement options to steam injection techniques. The key message is the importance to consider these techniques because steam injection is costly and has a high CO2 footprint. He has served on several international assignments, mainly in petroleum and reservoir engineering roles. He recently led the extra heavy-oil research team at the Shell Technology Centre in Calgary, focusing on improved in-situ heavy-oil recovery technologies. He retired from Shell after more than 35 years in Oct Van Dorp co- authored 13 SPE papers on diverse subjects.
Drilling systems automation is the real-time reliance on digital technology in creating a wellbore. It encompasses downhole tools and systems, surface drilling equipment, remote monitoring and the use of models and simulations while drilling. While its scope is large, its potential benefits are impressive, among them: fewer workers exposed to rig-floor hazards, the ability to realize repeatable performance drilling, and lower drilling risk.
While drilling systems automation includes new drilling technology, it is most importantly a collaborative infrastructure for performance drilling. In , a small group of engineers and scientists attending an SPE conference noted that automation was becoming a key topic in drilling and they formed a technical section to investigate it further.
By , the group reached a membership of sixteen hundred as the technology rapidly gaining acceptance. Why so much interest? The benefits and promises of an automated approach to drilling address the safety and fundamental economics of drilling. What will it take? Among the answers are an open collaborative digital environment at the wellsite, an openness of mind to digital technologies, and modified or new business practices.
What are the barriers? The primary barrier is a lack of understanding and a fear of automation. When will it happen? It is happening now. Digital technologies are transforming the infrastructure of the drilling industry. Drilling systems automation uses this infrastructure to deliver safety and performance, and address cost. During his 40 years in the oil industry, he has participated in exploratory drilling operations -- primarily in remote areas of South America -- and in various positions in drilling research and development.
His focus has been on exploration and drilling: starting with geology, through geomechanics, drilling modeling, to drilling dynamics and drilling systems automation. He has published about 40 papers, and has more than 25 granted patents. He is a member of the JPT editorial committee.
Adoption of the applied surface-backpressure types of managed pressure drilling MPD technologies in deepwater have mainly involved the use of a rotating control device RCD. The RCD creates a closed drilling system in which the flow out of the well is diverted towards an automated MPD choke manifold with a high-resolution mass flow meter that aside from regulating backpressure also increases sensitivity and reduces reaction time to kicks, losses, and other unwanted drilling events.
This integration of MPD equipment into floating drilling rigs to provide them with MPD capabilities, including the capacity to perform pressurized mud cap drilling PMCD and riser gas mitigation RGM , has produced improvements not only in drillability and efficiency, but most importantly in process safety. He helped pioneer deepwater MPD deployment on a dynamically positioned drillship in and is actively involved in major deepwater MPD rig integration projects globally.
Shaun is from the Philippines and holds a Geothermal Engineering degree from Negros Oriental State University, where he taught and conducted research on energy engineering. He previously held various field and office management positions with Weatherford in the Asia Pacific region. Integrated reservoir modelling IRM is a best practice in the Upstream industry applied throughout all life cycles stages of oil and gas projects aiming at characterisation of subsurface reservoirs and optimisation of field development phases.
In this respect, carbonate and clastic reservoirs are different in a range of aspects which will be highlighted. During the past 25 years, major steps in technology development have proven the importance of IRM as a key subsurface contributor to Upstream projects. A brief history of IRM through time will be provided using carbonate examples from exploration, development up to recent learnings around unconventional hydrocarbon trapping.
More importantly, these industry showcases will be used to introduce present-day challenges around IRM in the Upstream business. Despite the significant progress in modelling technologies, root causes for disappointing results of such studies are limitations in software tools and workflows together with the lack of integration.
This often causes poor project delivery. Such pitfalls within existing practices in the Upstream industry will be discussed highlighting that tools only are not able to assure success in subsurface reservoir characterisation projects. Finally, an outlook into the future of hydrocarbon development planning and IRM will be provided. Ultimately, end-to-end integration in Upstream project workflows requires focus on associated business decisions, scaling of models and scenario management supported by content and context based data management as well as capabilities around fast iterative feedback loops.
Only the combined improvements around tools, processes and people will maximise value for Upstream project delivery. In this position, his focus areas are integration and building capabilities around decision based subsurface modelling for muilti-disciplinary teams which he was involved with for the past 25 years in various assignments within Shell Production and Exploration ventures around the world.
The Science and Economics of Multiphase Flow. We are all familiar with the production systems through which reservoir fluids flow to reach our processing facilities. This is a journey characterized by complex multiphase flow phenomena that govern pressure and temperature changes along the way. A monumental amount of research and development work has been invested towards better understanding multiphase flow behavior over the past fifty years. Yet, many challenges remain as we strive to optimize ever more complex production systems fraught with difficult flow assurance issues.
Just how good is the science?
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And more importantly, how does this impact our bottom line? Looking towards the future, the science must be advanced to address areas of greatest uncertainty and align with trends in field development strategies. Recommendations will be presented covering the top 5 areas of research necessary for these purposes.
The economic impact of multiphase operations will be illustrated using two examples that provide insight towards maximizing asset value. He has extensive experience in well and network simulation studies, ranging from flow assurance to dynamic coupling of reservoir and surface simulation models. Microfracturing is an excellent method of obtaining direct stress measurements, not only in shales, but in conventional reservoirs as well. Recent advances have shown that microfracturing can help improve reservoir management by guiding well placement, completion design, and perforation strategy.
Microfracturing consists of isolating small test intervals in a well between inflatable packers, increasing the pressure until a small fracture forms and then by conducting a few injection and shut-in cycles, extend the fracture beyond the influence of the wellbore. Results show that direct stress measurements can be successfully acquired at multiple intervals in a few hours and the vertical scale nearly corresponds to electric log resolution. Case studies presented range from optimizing hydraulic fracturing in unconventionals, determining safe waterflood injection rates in brownfields, and improving perforation placement in ultra deepwater reservoirs.
Malik has authored numerous papers on petrophysics, formation testing, and microfracturing. The goal of this presentation will be to address this confusion and more fully explain Stress Shadows and their impact. The creation of hydraulic fracture width during a stimulation generates a change in the stress field, which alters all three principal stresses as well as tip shear stresses. These stress changes are the Stress Shadows.
As hydraulic fracture propagation is often controlled by the stress field, Stress Shadows may change the propagation path for subsequent hydraulic fractures or, as seen in cluster fracturing, propagation may be impeded completely. The presence of natural fractures and weakness planes can also affect, and be affected by, Stress Shadows. It is the work of Eros forcing us to levitate towards a subliminal biological urge. The deeper or larger the urge lurking beneath our sub-conscious mind collective consciousness at the thematic level is for the companionship of a higher order which goes beyond the milky way boundaries and this enduring desire will be blinking in us till we hug the so called extra-terrestrial remaining lathe biosas in the cosmological womb.
Our probes are directed towards the epicenter of cosmic signals emanating from far away distances. These are heart beats of cosmos. Like a bat, we move on. Are we being nurtured in the petri dish of the Milky Way as a Lyka or a guinea pig rotated to reach a destination watched and monitored by a super intelligent alien peeping through the worm hole, just as we sit and monitor our satellites and Cosmonauts from the control stations of NASA or ISRO?
Are we getting trapped in the human trafficking as mere slaves to their robotics? Or else we may be ending up as Frankenstein forever?
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Time is the test. Every particle has an anti particle — a needed pair for co-existence and progeny. If we extend this logic to humanity as a whole, there should have been our mirror images somewhere in the universe, hidden, un-explored and un-noticed. Humanity cannot rest alone in this Cosmos. Birds migrate, insects fly to a source of light and human beings search for their mirror images in the ever expanding Cosmos.
It is always said that there is only one movement and one destination for the mankind. Duality myth of the Almighty God might have been erased completely by Monism and it is maintained strangely to be so, till date. But in this binary world, the inscrutable Great Force whether actually is in fragments or appear to be so, creating Maya before our eyes as weak, strong and electro-magnetic forces with its gravitational pull and push modes.
We may either be drawing towards a total annihilation or to a total transformation. Whatever may be the drama, let us enact it boldly and wait for a greater and unique metamorphosis to take place. Though the circadian rhythm of our fragmented world are bound under the frame work of space time continuum, from the universal strings of cocoons created after the rendezvous we will be able to fly out as angels or emerge as God in a state of bliss.
This rosy picture we may have to passionately dream and it will blossom sooner or later at our behest. Imagine as if we conquer Hell, Heaven and Purgatory, then, there, if we were able to meet Picasso, Rembrandt and Hussains we will surely be entrusting them to draw this rosy picture as an eternal souvenir for the mankind.
Malabar Hill is an elevated area of Mumbai city, both literally and figuratively. The common perception of this prestigious precincts is that it is the abode of the rich and the mighty, of the ruling class, of power brokers, of cine stars. Because of this there is a perception that for anything and everything, Malabar Hill enjoys privileged treatment. How meaningless such perceptions are became evident after a heavy monsoon that inundated, and devastated, many parts of Mumbai. When mighty natural forces go berserk, there is relevance for only one human feeling: helplessness.
In an instant the floods caused by heavy rains taught Mumbai residents this lesson. Normally it takes only fifteen to twenty minutes from my office at the headquarters of the department of Atomic Energy to reach home on the Malabar Hill. But on that day of the floods it took more than three and a half hours because of the heavy traffic congestion. Tried to inform home about being stranded on the road, but the phone at home was silent. Even as I was watching the heavy traffic crawling, slowly and haltingly, along the beach road, rain became intense and the sea was unusually rough.
That was cause for some unease. Thoughts about the tsunami and its trail of devastation troubled my mind. Are my wife and son at home or outside for shopping? No idea. And greater relief when I found that my wife and son were at home. In fact they had planned to go out, but did not take the car in view of the rains.
They thought of taking a taxi but no taxi was available round the corner. So they gave up the idea and came back home. The next afternoon someone knocked at the door. It was Mrs. Ghosh, our neighbor. She was greatly upset. It was some time when she could compose herself to narrate what happened to her the previous day. She was in the car in the middle of a flooded road. Almost three-fourth of the car was under water. It was impossible to open the door or even to lower the wind screen.
It was suffocating inside and she even tried in vain to break the glass. She had to remain in the car in this situation for an unbelievable eighteen hours. Even then what troubled her foremost was thoughts about her daughter in college. What would have happened to her?
This was not an isolated incident. News media were full of harrowing tales of death and devastation, of separation of dear and near ones and other tragedies that the flash floods caused to an unprepared society. Occasionally there were SMS messages from people caught in the floods frantically seeking help and succor.
Messages from people we have never seen pleading for our help for their dear ones trapped somewhere in the flooded city.
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One message was from a man in Nagpur. His sister in Mumbai had boarded a double decker bus which was caught up in the floods at Chembur. The lower deck was inundated and now the flood waters had reached the upper deck. Will someone help her? Though the message was from an unknown person about an unseen person, the human face of the tragedy was clearly evident in this. Mother told me over the phone that the surging flood waters were fast inundating her home. Then the phone fell silent. Tried to contact their neighbours, but there was no response.
Will anyone help them? Even without them, help was flowing, from heart to heart. A school bus was stranded in flood waters. The residents of nearby apartments rushed to the aid of the kids and gave them drinking water, milk and food. When thousands of people waded through floods and slush for miles to reach home, there were long line ups of residents waiting on the way sides with food packets and water to provide them some relief.
That also happened during the deluge. Twenty-eight year old Navelkar, employed in the Mumbai police, was an able swimmer. He was on his way home after duty when he saw three men fighting for their lives in the flood waters. He jumped into the water and caught hold of one man and brought him to safety. He repeated the feat and saved a second man. But as he was trying to save the third man sinking, he himself was washed away by the swirling waters. His body was recovered later. For all people what is important is their personal sorrows and personal discomforts.
Statistics, therefore, may not clearly show the quantum of loss or extent of the tragedy. But the fact is that the quantity of rainfall that Mumbai received that day, The highest recorded rainfall in Chirapunji was It could normally handle only two and a half cm of rains an hour. It was therefore too Dr. A camel may pass through the eye of the needle, but it is totally impossible for city drains to cope with the sudden, heavy flow of water from such a cloudburst.
Every day as many as 4. At about 3. While an estimated one million people were stranded in the trains, over a lakh and half were forced to spend the night at platforms. Children from many schools also were stranded in the buses in the flood waters. Those students who had to remain in the schools overnight were lucky to escape the fury of the flood waters. It may be said Mumbai city where fifteen million people lived had come to a total standstill. There were indeed some silver linings to the dark clouds. It was indeed the brotherhood and camaraderie that the Mumbai residents showed in single mindedly handling the calamity.
In some cases people who were thought to have been killed in the deluge returned alive after some time. A seventeen year old student of a college run by the Kerala Samajam at Dombivli was washed away in the floods. A body recovered after a few days was identified as his and was properly cremated by his relatives. A week later, however, the youth was found in an unconscious state on a river bank in a distant village. The villagers first thought it was one of the many bodies washed ashore. But then they found that he was still breathing.
When the police brought him home, it was indeed like a resurrection after crucifixion. That is real brotherhood. In the midst of the tragedy of the Mumbai floods, umpteen were the hearty tales of such brotherhood. A bus carrying twenty-five passengers came to a standstill in front of his makeshift tea stall. It could not move forward because of the flood waters which started to enter the bus.
The passengers waited thinking the situation might improve and the bus could resume its journey. The chaiwala made tea for the passengers. After some time he got their residential telephone numbers and managed to go a distant booth to telephone their homes to inform them of their stranded condition. When darkness fell and it became evident the bus would not be able to go forward, Mushtaq became an angel of love, inviting all of them to his small house nearby to spend the night.
He made refreshments for them even as they prepared to settle down to spend the night as his guests. What are the lessons taught by the big flood in the big city? Calamities may strike any time. And often they come without warning. What is important is that we should try not to make city life itself calamitous. We should be able to foresee such possibilities and take pre-emptive measures. Urbanization has become the inevitable adjunct to the present century. We have to get in terms with that inevitability. We have to look at calamities, natural and man made, with a practical mind and make preparations to deal with them effectively.
There were clear cut instructions on the counter measures. What should be done, by whom, when. And everyone did his part meticulously. There were also people with a will to oversee its implementation. See the following message from M P Rattan, an Indian who happened to be in Japan during the time of the Mumbai deluge. Last Saturday we had a big earthquake here. And a tornado the following Tuesday. But life here continues to be normal. Why is it that we could not do there what these people could do here? Who should give an answer?
Can we let calamities continue to hit us with such unanswered questions? If so that will be the worst cal. It could be a possibility going by the myriad benefits music showers upon human beings. Several reports indicate that more and more people across the world are becoming lovers of music. It is seen that the number of those who find time to learn music is also increasing. Enjoying music in any form is relaxing. Singing lowers stress levels by releasing stored muscle tension and decreasing the levels of a stress hormone called cortisol in your blood stream.
The soothing power of music is well-established. It has a unique link to our emotions and so can be an extremely effective stress management tool. Listening to music can have a tremendously relaxing effect on our minds and bodies, especially slow, quiet classical music. Another study found that listening to classical music improved sleep quality in students with sleep problems, more so than listening to an audiobook or nothing at all. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, involved in the transmission of nerve impulses that helps maintaining joyous feelings.
Research suggests that music not only helps us cope with pain — it can also benefit us physically and mentally in numerous other ways. Music affects the brain in many positive ways. It makes you smarter, happier and more productive at any age. Listening is good, playing is even better. We are all familiar with how certain pieces of music can change your mood, get you motivated, or help you concentrate. If you want to keep your brain engaged throughout the aging process, listening to or playing music is a great tool.
Research has shown that listening to music can reduce anxiety, blood pressure, and pain as well as improve sleep quality, mood, mental alertness, and memory. Music therapists primarily help clients improve their health in several domains, such as cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional development, social skills, and quality of life, by using music experiences such as free improvisation, singing, and listening to, discussing, and moving to music to achieve best results for the treatment. In elderly adults with depression, a home-based program of music therapy may have long-lasting effects.
In depressed adult women, music therapy may lead to reductions in heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and depressed mood. All said, not all types of music have favourable effects, however. Too loud or too jarring music can be distracting, and can compete for our attention with what we're trying to do.
Listening to too much pop and hard rock music can make you more jittery than energized. Vary what you listen to and find out what type of music is the most beneficial for you. You could try classical music one day, pop the next day and then some jazz. Here are some facts about the effect of music in brief, which have been scientifically proved through several research studies. Regardless of our taste in music, it is clear that listening to music benefits our health, our body and mind, in myriad ways. It pays well if we spare at least one hour every day to enjoy the music of our taste.
Developing a taste for music, learning music, singing on social occasions etc. An algorithm is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions. A computer program can be viewed as an elaborate algorithm. In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm usually means a small procedure that solves a recurrent problem.
Algorithms are widely used throughout all areas of Information Technology. A search engine algorithm, for example, takes search strings of keywords and operators as input, searches its associated database for relevant web pages, and returns results. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks.
Much of the software now revolutionizing the financial services industry depends on algorithms that apply artificial intelligence AI —and increasingly, machine learning—to automate everything from simple, routine tasks to activities requiring sophisticated judgment. These algorithms and the analyses that support them have become progressively more sophisticated as the pool of potentially meaningful variables within the Big Data universe continues to proliferate. When properly implemented, algorithmic and AI systems increase processing speed, reduce mistakes due to human error and minimize labor costs, all while improving customer satisfaction rates.
Credit scoring algorithms, for example, not only help financial institutions optimize default and prepayment rates, but also streamline the application process, allowing for leaner staffing and an enhanced customer experience. When effective, these algorithms enable lenders to tweak approval criteria quickly and continually, responding in real time to both market conditions and customer needs.
Both lenders and borrowers stand to benefit. For decades, financial services companies have used different types of algorithms to trade securities, predict financial markets, identify prospective employees and assess potential customers. Although AI driven algorithms seek to avoid the failures of rigid instructions-based models of the past—such as those linked to the "Black Monday" stock market crash or 's "Flash Crash"—these models continue to present potential financial, reputational and legal risks for financial services companies.
From analyzing SMSs, utility and credit bill payments, social media profiles, e-commerce purchase patterns, mobile phone usage and behavioral patterns to evaluating educational and professional backgrounds of individual, algorithms play the primary role. The days when people had to wait eagerly for months to get a loan sanctioned with or without collateral are over.
The absence of a sound financial track record made many banks and other financial institutions reluctant in approving their loan applications, be it for starting a new business or buying a home or buying a vehicle. When assessing potential borrowers, lenders historically focused on very limited types of data relating to their repayment capacities and credit histories. They witnessed a constant challenge in finding the right fit of consumer profiles and suffered at the hands of high turnaround time.
Such an inefficient and time-consuming market for financial products in India resulted in high rejection rates in the loan ecosystem. Today, startups in the lending space are promising improved customer experience, streamlined processes, competitive rates and instant loan approvals.
The software that is being used to revolutionize the lending industry depends on algorithms that apply artificial intelligence AI , machine learning and other decision-making tools. When properly implemented, these algorithms increase the loan processing speed, reduce mistakes due to human error and minimize labor expenses in order to improve customer satisfaction rates. They also enable the lenders to swiftly tweak the approval criteria and respond to both the market conditions and customer needs in real time, creating wide-ranging benefits to both lenders and borrowers.
Lending to SMEs is considered yet another risky affair in India due to the dearth of credit scores and adequate data points. Traditional banking institutions use a few pre-defined data sets to estimate the financials of a business such as the balance sheets, bank statements as well as the loan repayment history of the business or its owner.
But new-age lending start-ups are emphasizing more on the unconventional records like mobile GPS data, which shows the locations visited by an applicant. This helps recognize whether the business owner regularly goes to the place of work. This is a major tech revolution where information from several spheres can be used to study customers and quickly decide whether to grant a loan or not.
Such data can not only help the fintech companies in reducing the response time but also focus on more value addition and customer-related functions.
Nevertheless, consumer financial services companies in particular must be vigilant in their use of algorithms that incorporate AI and machine learning. As algorithms become more ingrained in these companies' operations, previously unforeseen risks are beginning to appear—in particular, the risk that a perfectly well-intentioned algorithm may inadvertently generate biased conclusions that discriminate against protected classes of people. Courtesy : CXO Today. The term is used to refer to the increase in the average temperature of global surface air and oceans since about , and to continuing increases in those temperatures.
In specific terms, an increase of 1 or more degrees Celsius in a period of one hundred to two hundred years would be considered global warming. Over the course of a single century, an increase of even 0. Global warming is one of the most important issues of modern times and if not taken seriously, it is all set to annihilate all life forms from the surface of the earth. Global warming definition may look very simple but the phenomenon has started taking its toll, as the climatic conditions all over the earth are changing very rapidly.
Temperatures are certain to go up further. Human activities like burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, industrialization and increase in pollution are considered as few of the factors responsible for rise in global warming. Global warming has emerged as one of the biggest environmental issues in the last two decades. Scientists often use the term "climate change" instead of global warming. This is because as the Earth's average temperature climbs, winds and ocean currents move heat around the globe in ways that can cool some areas, warm others, and change the amount of rain and snow falling.
As a result, the climate changes differently in different areas. Global warming can have many different causes, but it is most commonly associated with human interference, specifically the release of excessive amounts of greenhouse gases. Gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2 , methane CH4 , water vapour, and fluorinated gases, act like a greenhouse gases around the earth.
This means that they allow the heat to come from the Sun into the atmosphere, but do not allow the heat to escape back into space. The earth could not exist in its present state that is, with life without the presence of some naturally occurring greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour. Without any greenhouse gases no heat would be trapped in atmosphere, so the earth would be extremely cold. The root cause of global warming is the emission of carbon dioxide due to burning of fossil fuels. The main culprits are for this the power plants that burn coal to produce electricity and in the process emit huge amounts of carbon dioxide.
This carbon dioxide envelops earth and does not allow heat of the sun to escape into the atmosphere, giving rise to the temperature. Origin of Global Warming:. It was about the second half of the 20th century, when the global warming had become a talk of the town. Carbon dioxide is not the only Greenhouse Gas. Methane is a natural form of gas that is released in rice paddies as well as the composting and decomposition of organic matter. However, methane gas is also released during the processing and preparation of fossil fuels. Nitrous oxide is another Greenhouse Gas.
It is a colourless, non-flammable gas with a slightly sweet odour. Nitrous oxide is naturally produced by oceans and rainforests. Nitrous oxide is naturally broken down in the atmosphere through chemical reactions that occur with sunlight. Causes of Global Warming:. Over the past century, our planet has slowly been warming up. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the average temperature around the world has gradually risen by one degree fahrenheit.
Though this minimal warming might not seem so significant, but the over-all impact will most certainly prove to the devastating if this continual warming process is not somehow abated. In fact, global warming is quite a complex phenomena brought about not only by us but also by nature itself. Natural Causes of Global Warming:. Among the most common and most significant contributors to global warming is deforestation caused by forest fires.
The fires also cause much carbon-filled smoke to rise from the forests to the atmosphere. Both results have dramatic effects on the rate at which global warming is currently occurring. Oceans are also significant contributors to global warming as it naturally contains much polluting carbon due to the ecosystems they support. Both the North and South poles also contribute a lot to global warming.
It is in those areas where permafrost contains large amounts of carbon that have frozen over time. Man Made Causes of Global Warming:. Deforestation is the 2nd most prolific cause of atmospheric carbon dioxide influx. Permafrost is the frozen soil throughout the Arctic and sub-arctic regions, that contain all kinds of organic matter such as all kinds of frozen plants and animals that have been frozen solid and held inert for 30, years.
Permafrost has acted like a jail cell for carbon, methane and other greenhouse gases for several thousand years. As glacial regions and permafrost begin to melt, the 50 billion tons of carbon held inactive under the frozen surface of the tundra, will begin and continue to be released into our atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect that would make the residents of the hottest and most humid tropical islands faint in a minute.
Effects of Global Warming. Polar Ice Caps:. The effects of global warming are strongest at the poles. Ice all over the world is melting. This includes the ice of mountain glaciers, Arctic sea ice and ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland. The melting ice increases the sea level and this causes flooding of low-lying areas.
Precipitation in the form of rain and snow has on average, increased across the whole world. Irregular weather patterns have an effect on humans. Rain is not only an inconvenience for humans, but also damage human property. The increase in heat will increase evaporation which is why there will be more rain. Animals and plants cannot easily adapt to increased rainfall or snowfall and many animals migrate to other areas.
More extreme weather is already occurring. Cyclones have gained in strength since Food Production:. As temperatures around the world will increase, plants will find it harder to cope and they will die. Some of the plants are used by humans for food and so a food shortage may occur. Agriculture would be severely affected because there is no water for plants to grow due to higher temperature.
When there are no plants, humans have nothing to eat. There are also no plants to feed animals and so humans cannot eat animals either. Animals have been migrating to adapt to new conditions. This migration destroys ecosystems and their biodiversity. As parts of the food chain are lost from an ecosystem the whole ecosystem can easily collapse.
Ecosystems and their biodiversity are important to humans. Humans get food, employment, raw materials and pharmaceutical products from the environment. Ecosystems will definitely change. So species will migrate to more suitable conditions while some will stay and try to adapt. Not all will succeed and more species will become extinct. Rising temperatures have an effect on the health of humans. Heat strokes are likely to increase as temperature gets hotter. Diseases such as malaria are likely to spread.
Parasites that originate in tropical regions may migrate to temperate regions as become warmer. Mosquitoes are an example and it is predicted that malaria will spread around world. Hurricane Katrina was famous hurricane for decimated the city of New Orleans, destroying structures, killing people and displacing. Between and a 20 cm. This is due to ocean water expansion through its warming and water from melting glaciers and polar ice.
Oceans have absorbed about half the human-made CO2 emissions since A higher CO2 content makes the oceans more acid. This has adverse effects on coral, fish and plankton. Warmer ocean water and volumes of fresh water from melting glaciers could disrupt the Gulfstream which influences Northern European weather. A cooling effect could occur. Rising oceans cold swallow low-lying islands and coastal areas. Water Availability:. Reduced rainfall, droughts, and vanishing glaciers will severely reduce the availability of drinking water.
Further Global Warming:. Melting glaciers and permafrost may be at a stage where there is no turning back. As they contribute their fresh water to the oceans and as methane gas is released these events will further accelerate global warming. This is called the positive feedback effect. Coral Reefs:. Corals get their food from an algae called zooxanthellae, which lives in the coral. Over a prolonged period of time, bleaching leads to death. A second contributing factor to the current sea-wide decline in coral reefs is that, as atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide CO2 increasing oceans are becoming more acidic.
As global warming causes climate change, many great deserts like the Sahara are no longer able to sustain their animal population. Loss of habitat is most vividly seen in the Arctic, where global warming is melting the glaciers, pushing the polar bears into extinction. The melting glaciers have caused water levels to rise in many oceans, threatening to drown many tropical islands and forests that have animal life.
How to reduce global warming. The planet is warming due to human influence, but can human innovation save it? The evidence that humans are causing global warming is strong, but the question of what to do about it remains controversial. Economics, sociology, and politics are all important factors in planning for the future. Many people and governments across the globe are already working hard to cut greenhouse gases, and every person can help in this stupendous task of protecting the globe. The methods to reduce global warming include the following.
Global warming has become one of the most serious issues in current affairs, politicians and environmentalists due to the various risks and effects associated with it. Despite the fact that global warming is increasing at an alarming rate and it might be too late to restore the damage it has caused, it is believed that developing an aggressive plan of action can help reduce its negative impact.
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Unless the critical issue of global warming does not hit every person on earth, it will be very difficult to prevent the world from burning due to global warming in the near future. Procrastination is a challenge we have all faced at one point or another. For as long as humans have been around, we have been struggling with delaying, avoiding, and procrastinating on issues that matter to us. The problem of procrastination is so timeless that ancient Greek philosophers like Socrates and Aristotle developed a word to describe this type of behavior: Akrasia, which is the state of acting against your better judgment.
It is when you do one thing even though you know you should do something else. Loosely translated, you could say that akrasia is procrastination or a lack of self-control. Procrastination typically gets a bad name as a habit that impacts productivity and holds people back from fulfilling their potential. Procrastination has been linked to a number of negative associations, such as depression, irrational behaviour, low self-esteem, anxiety and neurological disorders such as ADHD.
Others have found relationships with guilt and stress. Some researchers define procrastination as "a form of self-regulation failure characterized by the needless delay of things one intends to do despite the expectation of negative consequences. Time inconsistency refers to the tendency of the human brain to value immediate rewards more highly than future rewards.
When referring to procrastination, some people may think of it as poor time management, an inability to organize and prioritize tasks, meaning that we do them at the last minute, or even past their deadline. We may procrastinate to reduce stress in the short-term. Increasingly, research has shown that procrastination is, in fact, a complex, often maladaptive reaction to various perceived stressors. One study found that procrastination is positively related to psychological vulnerability.
Other research pointed out that people who tend to put tasks off until the last moment may have lower self-esteem than their peers. Studies have also found that people who procrastinate tend to have higher levels of stress and lower levels of self-compassion. A study published in in shows a correlation between certain types of procrastination and neuroticism, a personality trait that denotes a high susceptibility to feelings of anxiety, worry, or frustration.
In , researches indicated that the people who are most likely to keep on procrastinating seem to have larger amygdalae than non-procrastinators. The amygdale is a brain region that plays a crucial role in the regulation of emotions, particularly processing anxiety and fear. The researchers explained that regarding action control, this could mean that individuals with a larger amygdala volume have learned from past mistakes and evaluate future actions and their possible consequences more extensively and this, in turn might lead to greater concern and hesitation, as observed in individuals with low decision-related action orientation scores.
Another study suggests that people may use procrastination as a "quick fix" for the negative moods created by the stress related to a specific task. Procrastinating may create more stress in the long run, affecting mental health. Some people tend to procrastinate if there is a task that they don't want to do, perhaps because it is unpleasant, stressful, or boring. How to Stop Procrastinating Right Now. There are many strategies that can be employed to stop procrastinating.
If you can find a way to make the benefits of long-term choices more immediate, then it becomes easier to avoid procrastination. One of the best ways to bring future rewards into the present moment is by bundling a behavior that is good for you in the long-run with a behavior that feels good in the short-run. Here are a few tips to crush procrastination. You can't do any work if you don't know what assignments need to be completed.