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In order to bring closure to this feud. An Angel name Sera and a demon named Fi This prompts her to stop by in person, and express her "hat What's this? We miss something? Hentai is a genre of anime that is very popular in its native Japan, as well as every other country with Internet access. A typical hentai involves one or more tastefully-presented characters engaging in various tentacle-related acts. Hentai is, to put it bluntly, pornography of anime characters. Rule 34 guarantees that every anime ever made has at least one piece of hentai on the Internet. While watching hentai is considered abnormal by some, for others it is a vital part of their daily routine.
The original meaning of Hentai in the Japanese language is a transformation or a metamorphosis. The implication of perversion or paraphilia was derived from there. Both meanings can be distinguished in context easily. In Japanese, the term describes any type of perverse or bizarre sexual desire or act; it does not represent a genre of work. Internationally, hentai is a catch-all term to describe a genre of anime and manga pornography. English adopts and uses hentai as a genre of pornography by the commercial sale and marketing of explicit works under this label. The word's narrow Japanese-language usage and broad international usage are often incompatible.
Weather Report Girl is considered yuri hentai in English usage for its depiction of lesbian sex, but in Japan it is just yuri. The definition clash also appears with the Japanese definition of yuri as any lesbian relationship, as opposed to its sexually explicit definition in English usage. The word "hentai" written in kanji Etymology The history of word "hentai" has its origins in science and psychology. When the initial military invasion faltered, Mitsubishi began to search for alternative methods to subdue his foes. To this end, the warlord employed a number of Japanese artists to create an early form of psychological warfare that could be used against the Koreans.
Near the end of the war, the artists succeeded created an early form of tentacle porn that is now known as Hentai. However, when the first shipment of Hentai paintings reached the Korean Peninsula in , the Korean soldiers barely noticed the crude drawings. As it turns out, the Korean army had been suffering from a debilitating toilet paper shortage. Realizing that the Japanese had just sent them thousands of pieces of paper, the Koreans quickly began to use the tentacle-filled pictures to wipe themselves.
This is how the popularly used name "Hentai" was coined. In Korean, the literal translation of "Hen-Tai" is "toilet paper". After the dismal failure of his Korean campaign, Mitsubishi was more broke than a college graduate. Left with tens of thousands of useless pieces of anime pornography and desperate for money to buy real pornography, Mitsubishi began to sell off the remaining works to Japanese peasants. However, with nothing better to do on their tiny island, it did not take long for Hentai quickly became popular along the peasantry. Despite later push-back and bans from the Japanese government, Hentai steadily spread out across Japan like an incurable pervy plague.
Today, the Hentai plague continues to seep out of Japan across the world, mostly thanks to the Internet. From approximately to , at the height of the Toonami-fueled anime craze, hentai could only be found in the darkest corners of the Internet, and at best it usually existed a blurry pixelated form. However, since then, the popularity of this basement-dweller pastime has skyrocketed and is currently growing faster than the US National Debt. In fact, the global hentai market has grown so dramatically that professional "artists" often provide hentai to consumers under the condition of monthly payments.
With the usage of hentai as any erotic depiction, the history of these depictions are split into its media. Japanese artwork and comics serve as the first example of hentai material, coming to represent the iconic style after the publication of Azuma Hideo's Cybele in Japanese animation anime had its first hentai, in both definitions, with the release of Wonderkid's Lolita Anime, overlooking the erotic and sexual depictions in 's One Thousand and One Arabian Nights and the bare breasted Cleopatra in 's Cleopatra film. Erotic games, another area of contention, has the iconic art style first depicted in sexual acts in 's Tenshitachi no Gogo.
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The history of each medium itself, complicated based on the broad definition and usage. From the 16th to the 19th century, Shunga works were suppressed by shoguns. Shunga production fell with the rise of pornographic photographs in the late 19th century. To define erotic manga, a definition for manga is needed.
While the Hokusai Manga uses the term "manga" in its title, it does not depict the story-telling aspect common to modern manga, as the images are unrelated. Due to the influence of pornographic photographs in the 19th and 20th centuries, the manga artwork was depicted by realistic characters. However, Osamu Tezuka has helped define the modern look and form of manga, and was later proclaimed as the "God of Manga".
This would start a pornographic manga movement. Hentai is typically defined as consisting of excessive nudity, and graphic sexual intercourse whether or not it is perverse. The term "ecchi" is typically related to fanservice, with no sexual intercourse being depicted. Two early works escape being defined as hentai, but contain erotic themes.
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This is likely due to the obscurity and unfamiliarity of the works, arriving in America and fading from public focus a full twenty years before importation and surging interests coined the Americanized term of hentai. The first is the film One Thousand and One Arabian Nights which faithfully includes erotic elements of the original story. Containing eight episodes, the series focused on underage sex and rape and included one episode containing BDSM bondage. Lolicon The Cream Lemon franchise of works ran from to , with a number of them entering the American market in various forms.
It was Central Park Media's release of Urotsukidoji which brought the first hentai film to American viewers. Vision's label SoftCel Pictures released 19 titles in alone. Vision's hentai label SoftCel Pictures shut down in , most of its titles were acquired by Critical Mass. Following the bankruptcy of Central Park Media in , the licenses for all Anime related products and movies were transferred to Critical Mass. The origins of eroge began in the early s, while the computer industry in Japan was struggling to define a computer standard with makers like NEC, Sharp, and Fujitsu competing against one another.
If the definition applies to adult themes, the first game was Softporn Adventure. Notably, Night Life was not intended to be erotic so much as an instructional guide "to support married life". A series of "undressing" games appeared as early as , such as "Strip Mahjong". Style The style of hentai is easily recognized either by its colors, lack of a plot, or the look on your face when you watch it.
The seizure-inducing colors make it appropriate for children in Japan, and the pleasant sight of inhumane tentacle rape provides a slice of action to spice the program up for older viewers. Hentai programs are well known for involving a biologically accurate, if not generous, portrayal of the human body. Usually, hentai animes feature innocent-looking girls who happen to be virgins. Conveniently, these girls seem to be unsuspecting, yet somewhat willing, when they are suddenly subjected to copious amounts surprise sex. Typically, this torrent of sexual energy descends upon them in the form of tentacled creatures or a group of well-endowed gentlemen.
Usually the guys involved are characters from the actual anime on which the hentai is based. However, in their Hentai form, these guys have become ultra-creepy and suffer from an unshakable addiction to Viagra. We strongly urge you to look for these features before allowing your children to watch cartoons from Japan. Otherwise, you are going to end up having a really awkward conversation with your kids about what the octopus was just doing to that poor lady. Hentai is a Sino-Japanese compound term widely used in modern Japanese to designate a person, action or state that is considered queer or perverse, particularly in a sexual sense.
Unlike the English term 'queer', however, hentai does not have predominantly homosexual connotations but can be used to describe any sexual acts or motivations other than what might be termed 'normal' sexual relations. Apart from this general use of the term hentai, it can also be used to designate a specific genre of Japanese manga and animation that features extreme or perverse sexual content and it is in this sense that hentai has become well- known among western fans of Japanese popular culture.
A Yahoo search for 'hentai', for instance, produces over 7 million hits—more than twice that of better-known loanwords such as samurai, geisha or sushi. This astonishing number is evidence of the popularity of a genre of erotic manga and anime referred to as hentai or sometimes the abbreviation 'H' pronounced etchi in Japanese by western fans. However, despite the popularity of the genre and its massive presence on the internet, the category hentai is not discussed in English-language studies of manga and anime such as Poitras' The Anime Companion, Napier's Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke, Allison's Permitted and Prohibited Desires: Mothers, Comics and Censorship in Japan or Buckley's Encyclopedia of Japanese Popular Culture.
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Why is this so? The reason is not prudishness but rather the fact that use of the term hentai to refer to erotic or sexual manga and anime in general is not a Japanese but an English innovation. In Japanese hentai can reference sexual material but only of an extreme, 'abnormal' or 'perverse' kind; it is not a general category.
The Japanese use of hentai refers to both same-sex and heterosexual activities which are considered unusual but also extreme. Before looking in detail at how the term hentai developed in Japanese and eventually spread to the English-speaking world, I will look briefly at how the term hentai is actually used in western manga and anime fandom.
Hentai and its abbreviation H are used interchangeably on English fan sites in a context in which ero [erotic] or seinen [adult] would be the more appropriate Japanese terms. That is, both hentai and etchi are used to describe anime or manga with strong sexual content. However, the use of the term hentai, which in English refers to a much broader range of sexual scenarios than it does in Japanese, cannot properly be said to be a 'mistake,' as many fans are aware of the different uses of the term in Japanese and western manga and anime fandom; indeed as self- defining otaku, many fans pride themselves on just this kind of insider knowledge.
Hentai is, then, in the context of western manga and anime fandom, no longer a 'Japanese' word but has become a loanword with its own specific meaning and nuance, just like loanwords into Japanese such as abekku from the French avec, meaning 'with' and in Japanese used to refer to a dating couple or arubaito from the German word for 'work', signifying in Japanese a part-time job.
Hentai in the Meiji and Taisho eras 6. I would like to turn now to the history of the term hentai in Japanese. It is obviously the second definition— hentai's use as an abbreviation for hentai seiyoku that is of most interest to us and to understand how this came about we need to look at the introduction of sexology to Japan in the Meiji period.
Since the Meiji period, the use of the term hentai has had a parallel history in both science and psychology, but the sense that hentai communicates of something being unusual or abnormal comes from the latter. It was first used in the middle of the Meiji period in the context of the developing science of psychology to describe disorders such as hysteria as well as to refer to paranormal abilities such as telepathy and hypnosis.
Although the term originally circulated only among medical specialists, by it was being popularised via such journals such as Hentai shinri [Abnormal psychology]. However it did not have any particular sexual connotations in this context. Hentai'ssexual reference was to come not through its connection with hentai shinri but through its juxtaposition with another, related term, hentai seiyoku or 'abnormal sexual desires'.
The elaboration of a psychological realm of sexual desire in medical texts as well as literature led to the designation of 'normal' and 'perverse' forms of sexuality and, accordingly, people. Indeed, from the end of the Meiji period discussions of 'perverse' or 'queer' desire [hentai seiyoku] which drew upon theorists such as Freud, began to circulate in popular magazines that advocated the improvement of public morals in pursuit of 'civilization and enlightenment'—a popular slogan of the period and hentai seiyoku continued to be discussed in the early years of the Taisho period via popular sexology works such as Habuto Eiji and Sawada Junjiro's best-selling Hentai seiyokuron.
For instance, in an article about the death of one of Japan's first actresses, Matsui Sumako, was entitled 'Sumako no jisatsu wa hentai seiyoku' [Sumako's suicide was perverse Figure 1. A depiction of a male desire]. The experts who wrote these articles and analysed the perverse desires of their correspondents did so in a popular medium that appealed to a readership far wider than the medical community.
As Fruhstuck points out, by the middle of the Taisho period rising literacy rates and the proliferation of cheap newspapers and magazines meant that reading had become a favorite leisure activity of the working classes, allowing a 'low scientific culture' to develop. The re-emergence of hentai in the postwar era The immediate postwar years saw the development of a kasutori [low-grade, pulp culture]—kasutori is literally a poor-quality alcohol distilled from sake lees and drinkers were supposed to collapse after only three glasses just as these magazines tended to fold after their third issue.
The Japanese press was now free to dispense with the 'wholesome' preoccupations of wartime literature and instead explore more 'decadent' themes, including a whole genre of 'carnal literature' [nikutai bungaku] in which the physicality of the body was emphasised over more ideological concerns. As Igarashi points out, for many survivors, their bodies were the only possession they had managed to preserve from the destruction of the war; Japan's burned-out cities became sites for celebration of the 'raw, erotic energy of Japanese bodies'. Figure 2. Children look at a placard advertising a strip show in Figure 3.
Female model in military Asakusa, Tokyo. One had only to glance at the covers of the kasutori press to understand that there had been a radical break from the past. Women's bodies were prominently displayed in a manner that would have been inconceivable before the war.
Public sexuality was suddenly visible and acceptable in a manner not seen prior to the war's end, and 'petting' [pettingu] couples were conspicuous features of parks and shrine precincts. What happened to hentai in the context of this new sexual culture? Given the new popularity of English in postwar Japan, hentai was occasionally written Figure 4. By the mid s etchiwas being used, particularly in the new burgeoning youth culture, to refer to sex in general—a newspaper reported that even children in the fifth grade knew about etchina kotoba or 'sexy words' and by the s etchi was being used to mean 'sex' as in etchi wo shitai or 'I want to have sex'.
However, what of the development of hentai? While the new pulp magazines certainly contributed to the dissemination and popularisation of new modes of heterosexual interaction and behavior—resulting in a new proliferation of heterosexualities, by the early s a subgenre had developed focusing on hentai seiyoku or 'perverse desire' which included both male and female homosexuality as well as a range of fetishistic behaviors including characteristically Japanese obsessions such as love suicides and disembowelment [seppuku].
This genre had much in common with the s fad for publications specialising in erotic, grotesque nonsense. Figure 5. The cover of a special Figure 6. The genre was characterised by the exchange which took place between specialist researchers, amateur hobbyists and readers themselves. The magazines frequently featured roundtable talks where medical doctors, writers, readers and editors came together to discuss specific issues such as male homosexuality, female same- sex desire, sadomasochism or a range of fetishes. In these discussions, the discourse of modern medicine which rendered some sexual desires 'abnormal' was represented alongside reports from actual people who self-defined as abu or abnormal.
Hence, this was a genre characterised by its hybridity see also Ishida and Murakami's article in this edition of Intersections. Importantly, hentai magazines such as Kitan kurabu created readers' columns to stimulate the critique of articles and encourage exchange of ideas between readers. These readers' columns not only functioned as personal advertisements which accorded people with the same interests opportunities to meet, but they also enabled the sharing of various sexual fantasies. The hentaiseiyoku [perverse desires] genre of the postwar period was characterised by the tendency to seek out relations between a wide range of non-normative sexual fantasies and desires.
There was also a sharing of fantasies between groups who experienced different sexual desires. For instance, many articles in the magazines focused on seppuku or the ritual disembowelment once practiced by samurai. One requirement of the ritual was the wearing of a loincloth which tightly wrapped both stomach and groin to stop the intestines spilling out. As Ishida and Murakami point out in their article in this edition of Intersections, male disembowelment maniacs often recognised that articles and illustrations depicting his own sexual fetish were also appropriated by readers who were 'loincloth maniacs' and 'lovers of youths.
This was particularly the case with the treatment of the 'love of Lesbos. Stories about lesbianism were thus available for diverse appropriation See Figure 7. However as the hentai press developed throughout the s, it became more heterosexual in orientation and stories about both male homosexuality and male cross- Figure 7. An illustration entitled dressing, which had been major concerns in the 'Human ashtray' from Kitan s magazines, dropped from its pages. The kurabu, While in English, equivalent terms of hentai such as queer or perverse tended to connote homosexuality, hentai in Japanese had a much stronger heterosexual nuance, although it could still be used to denote a range of same-sex sexual activities.
More recent appropriations of hentai Following the late s' 'sexual revolution' Japan saw another publishing boom in material of a sexual nature, including practices considered to be hentai. The cover of Dan's Inka Introduction to hentai studies. Although primarily heterosexual in focus, Akiyama's book maintains the hybridity of earlier literature and discusses a range of 'perverse' behaviours including male cross-dressing and lesbianism, although the latter is very much situated as a fantasy trope for men.
Dan Kiroku's book Inka shokubutsugun [Shady flowers group] is similar in tone, again asking on the cover 'Are you abnormal? Based on a reading or the above texts as well as their ubiquity, I suggest that in Japanese the term hentai has never had the same pejorative force that 'queer' or 'pervert' have in English. For a start, actions considered hentai such as sex between men or male and female cross-dressing have never been criminal offenses in Japan— whereas both were illegal in most western countries until very recently.
Also, while queer and pervert have had a primarily homosexual nuance in English, hentai in Japanese has had a mainly heterosexual nuance. Despite this heterosexual nuance, recently hentai was appropriated by Fushimi Noriaki, one of Japan's leading gay writers and critics, for the title of a collection on gay salarymen—'hentai suru sarariiman'—[salarymen doing queer; ] Figure Figure The cover of Fushimi's Figure The cover of Fushimi's 'Salarymen doing queer' edition book, A hentai queer introduction.
In this text, Fushimi reverses the bias in mainstream hentai discussion which favours heterosexual perversion and refers instead to a wide range of same-sex 'perverse' practices and identities. Whether this innovation will be taken up by the wider lesbian and gay community in Japan, however, remains to be seen. Indeed, despite growing gay interest in the genre, many Japanese lesbians feel that the hentai paradigm is irredeemably masculinist and has little to contribute to an understanding of female same-sex desire in the Japanese context.
Wani no ana, Tokyo: Wani no ana, , p. BIG, featuring Mr. Big from the Art of Fighting video games. Ecstasy on July 25, with added adult content, story, and visuals. Sex and violence in games — A toxic media? The inclusion of sex and nudity in video games has been a controversial topic since the early days of the industry. While many video games have used scantily clad images or characters to sell or enhance games, some go further, using sex acts or nudity as a character motivation, in- game reward, or simply as a gameplay element.
These games originate worldwide, on most platforms and can be of any video game genre. While releases in Europe and North America have been sporadic and often unlicensed, Japan has seen the emergence of a pornographic video game subgenre—eroge, first appearing on the NEC PC computer platform in the s.
History s One of the earliest video games if not the first to feature sexual themes was the text- based Softporn Adventure, published by On-Line Systems for the Apple II. In a article in Time Magazine, On-Line reported that they were making a version of the game for straight women, though this never materialized. That same year, Koei released another erotic title, Danchi Tsuma no Yuwaku Seduction of the Condominium Wife , which was an early role-playing adventure game with colour graphics, owing to the eight-color palette of the NEC PC computer. It became a hit, helping Koei become a major software company.
The games were noted for their negative reception, particularly Custer's Revenge for its depiction of what was perceived as General Custer raping Native Americanwomen. Despite the increased sales due to one of the first instances of video game controversy , Mystique went out of business after only releasing these three games. A company named Playaround began distributing these games packaged in 2-in-1 "double-ender" cartridges. The re-released version of Custer's Revenge was titled Westward Ho! X-man features the player as a nude man working through a maze toward a pink door in the center, past antagonistic crabs, teeth and scissors.
Players that reached the pink door were rewarded with a controllable sex scene. Like with Koei, several other now-famous Japanese companies such as Enix, Square and Nihon Falcom also released erotic adult games for the PC computer in the early s before they became mainstream. Early eroge usually had simplistic stories and extreme sexual content, such as rape. These factors often led to widespread condemnation from the Japanese media.
Soon, new genres were invented. In , a company called Entertainment Enterprises, Ltd. The game requires the player to drive through the city maze gathering dots like Pac-Man before reaching a brothel where the player is required to fight off venereal disease and collect keys to unlock sex scenes. Once the scenes are unlocked the top door is open where the player can go and engage in a controllable sex scene letting the player have intercourse with a woman until the player reaches orgasm and the game is over.
The same company would later release the controversial Vixen, featuring another page 3 model Corinne Russell. Also in On-line Systems now called Sierra On-Line asked game designer Al Lowe to create an adult game in the graphical adventure style made popular by their King's Quest series.
Lowe took the basic elements of Softporn Adventure, greatly expanded it, and released it as the game Leisure Suit Larry in the Land of the Lounge Lizards. Sierra didn't advertise the game and retailers were loath to carry it, so initial sales were low. Both pre-rendered and real-time 3D graphics were also used. While most games could be considered nothing more than pornography, some attempted to include actual story and plot. This can be seen in some games with less explicit content, equal to an R or PG rated movie.
The game derived gameplay elements off an older title called Qix, which didn't have sexual images. The object of the games is to slowly remove pieces of the playing field while avoiding an enemy or groups of enemies. Removing the playing field slowly reveals pictures of models in escalating states of undress. The game had nine sequels throughout the s with a final game in In it, before any eroticism, the user has to first win the affection of one of a number of female characters, making the story into an interactive romance novel.
Thus, the love simulation genre was invented. Soon afterwards, the video game Otogirisou on the Super Famicom attracted the attention of many Japanese gamers. Otogirisou was a standard adventure game but had multiple endings. This concept was called a "sound novel. Their next game, Kizuato, was almost as dark. However, in , they released To Heart, a sweetly sentimental story of high school love. After a similar game by Tactics, One: Kagayaku Kisetsu e, became a hit in , Visual Art's scouted main creative staff of One to form a new brand under them, which became Key.
It contains about 7 brief erotic scenes in a sentimental story the size of a long novel an all-ages version was also released afterward. Kanon sold over , copies. Although many eroge still market themselves primarily on sex, eroge that focus on story are now a major established part of Japanese otaku. While it is not explicitly intended for purely adult-oriented entertainment, the virtual world of Second Life, which is made up almost entirely of player-made content, has an array of very exotic adult entertainment including nudity and full-on sexual activities.
Adult games may take the form of bootlegs, circumventing mainstream publishers who may have policies against such games.
Patches or hacks to mainstream non-adult games may add sexual and pornographic themes, mostly for humor, especially when sexuality was never intended in the original game. The Internet has allowed adult games to receive wider availability and recognition, including amateur games in Flash or Java. It has also allowed amateurs to create and distribute adult text adventure games, known as "Adult Interactive Fiction" or AIF. Burgess et al. In , researchers publishing in Psychological Record Vol.
When playable female characters do appear in video games, they are more often scantily dressed and oversexualized than men. A study of these games found that although the leading female characters in these games were able to subvert predominant gender stereotypes, women were still limited by men in the narratives, in particular through benevolent sexism. This indicated, according to game industry professionals cited by Polygon, a shift in the industry's attention towards issues of diversity in gaming, in conjunction with video games as a whole growing beyond their former core audience of younger men.
In the game the hero was Mario, and the objective of the game was to rescue a young princess named Peach. Peach was depicted as having a pink dress and blonde hair. The princess was kidnapped and trapped in a castle by the evil villain character Bowser, who is depicted as a turtle. Princess Peach appears in 15 of the main Super Mario games and is kidnapped in 13 of them. The only main games that Peach was not kidnapped in were in the North America release of Super Mario 2 and Super Mario 3D World, but she was a character that can be played. Zelda became playable in some later games of the Legend of Zelda series or had the pattern altered.
In all of these instances, the female character is, more likely than not, in love with the male protagonist or trying desperately to bang him. Alyx Vance, a supporting protagonist of Half-Life 2, was praised for her "stinging personality" and intelligence, developing a close bond with the player without simply being "eye candy". At PAX Prime , she was voted among the best female antagonists in video gaming history. Recurring themes in articles and discussions on the topic include the sexual objectification and sexualization of female characters, done to appeal to a presumed male audience, as well as the degree to which female characters are independent from their male counterparts within the same game.
Research on exposure to sexualized media representations of women in television and magazines has asked whether it reduces male compassion toward women, and reduces women's perceptions of their desire and suitability for various vocations. More than one quarter of female characters embodied all of the three stereotypical categories at once. Dill and Thill also note that another prevalent theme with which women were depicted was a combination of aggression and sex, referred to as "eroticized aggression". Females who were depicted were frequently sexualized. The female characters analyzed were depicted partially naked or with unrealistic proportions more often than the male characters were.
It also determined that there was no significant difference in sexualization between games rated as "Teen" for ages 13 and up and "Mature" 17 and up by the ESRB, indicating that sexualized women in games are so prevalent that they are not thought of as objectionable to children. Less sexualization was found in RPGs, which are played more often by women, than in action and fighting games. Pac-Man are identical to an existing male character, except for a visual marker of their femininity, such as pink bows, lipstick and long eyelashes.
Two of the main characters, Trevor Philips and Michael De Santa, have since been interpreted by some as portraying men as "liars, cheats, bad husbands and fathers, and psychopaths". He also highlighted that the vast majority of characters who perform and experience violence in video games are men, while women and children are generally to be protected. Lots of guns. I'll make them pay! In this view, depictions of males as objects of desire are coded by including feminine traits, vanity and attention to personal attires, or queer codes, often depicted as humorous.
Because of these traits, this category of characters occurs most often with non-player characters. Portrayal of LGBT characters LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender characters have been included in video games as early as the s and s. Due to adherence to Nintendo's quality standards and translations based on preserving gameplay rather than literal meaning, these characters' identities were altered or erased in translation.
This can occur in sandbox games such as The Sims. Games are made on contemporary culture's heteronormative basis, and this shapes narrative and characters. In the popular MMO World of Warcraft, for example, this has "created an oppressive atmosphere for individuals who do not adhere to a heteronormative lifestyle", according to a assessment of the game's community. There are no games produced specifically to appeal to an LGBT audience. This exposure was negatively correlated with men's certainty in their judgements when presented with a scenario of possible sexual harassment selected for its ambiguity.
The exposure to violent video games was also correlated with attitudes supportive of rape. This lack of scrutiny means that we know very little about the effects that video games may have on children's development and socialization. Through social comparison processes, players learn societal expectations of appearances, behaviors and roles. The gender roles internalized by young individuals have a significant impact upon their perspectives and the additional roles they assume in later life. Feminine and masculine symbols are supposed to become a part of a child's identity.
Penny Arcade Report attributed the difference to larger marketing budgets for games with male heroes. Minimal differences were seen between male and female responses. The authors interpreted this as meaning that the gaming industry's focus on male protagonists stifled sales to girls more than it promoted sales to boys.
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Self-identified "hardcore" gamers of both genders, on average, considered a female protagonist less important than "core" or "casual" gamers did. The matter is further complicated by the fact that some hentai games e. GunBlaze, Eve Burst Error, and others were re-released usually on a console system with all explicit content removed.
Night Life was the first commercially released eroge. The majority of hentai games are Japanese-style adventures or visual novels with minimal interaction, often also containing vast amounts of dialogue and a developed narrative. These games may include simulation elements, often revolving around dating; pure sex simulation games are also not uncommon. However, there are also many eroge that belong to other genres, such as role-playing, fighting, strategy, and others. If at least one version of the game answers the above requirements, it may be included, even if its adult content was removed from other versions.
To illustrate: Yu-No can be part of the group; Tokimeki Memorial games can not. For the sake of clarity, games with rare and occasional glimpses of nudity do not qualify for inclusion in this group. Some very early Japanese adult games, as well as many 3D ones, tend to have a lesser focus on anime aesthetics; rare cases such as Ayumi-chan Monogatari: Jisshaban even eschew them completely. The terms "eroge" and "hentai" traditionally only refer to Japanese games; therefore, any Japanese-made adult game qualifies for this group.
Non-Japanese adult games, on the other hand, can be included only if they are made with a clear intention of resembling Japanese eroge. Falcom Corp. Do You Like Horny Bunnies? Although it is not legally binding under U. AO is the highest and most restrictive of the ESRB's content ratings, and dramatically impacts the commercial availability of games which carry it; all three major video game console manufacturers Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony Interactive Entertainment refuse to allow AO-rated games to be published for their platforms, most retailers refuse to stock AO-rated games, and the popular video game live streaming service Twitch explicitly bans all games carrying the rating.
Rockstar Games' Manhunt 2 was the second game given an AO rating for extremely violent content, but was re-ed to meet the M rating so it could be released on consoles an uncut, AO-rated version for Windows was released in Fellow Rockstar game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas was temporarily re-rated to AO from M in response to the release of a mod known as "Hot Coffee", which allowed players to access a sexually-explicit minigame that was removed in development, but still present within the game's code in an incomplete state.
The M rating was reinstated after Rockstar released patches and revisions of the game which excluded the content entirely. Unlike other self- rated games by MangaGamer, this game was sent to Blood, the ESRB at the nudity, request from the sexual Japanese Ef: A Fairy violence, developer in order Tale of the  Windows MangaGamer strong to get a green-lit Two language for the hardcopy , strong release in the sexual United content States.
Its drugs rating was changed back to M after Rockstar patched the game to remove the offending content entirely. Practically every single time I hear about some controversy related to the depiction of sex in a video game, and not just on Kotaku, I see a ton of comments that go along the lines of this: "[People have such a problem with showing sex,] And yet people have no problems with killing people in games" Outstream Video And given the wide variety of issues that this brings up, I feel like several different parties are missing several different points. What is the typical complaint here, from the side of the stereo?
Let us look at the current state of how video games are moderated in America. I can't speak for how things are done in other regions. Here's some food for thought: I'm curious as to where the opposition to depictions of nudity and sex comes from. I've heard a few people say that "the church brainwashes people to hate sex," for example — rash generalization aside, this sort of thing honestly wouldn't solve any actual societal problems and would throw the baby.
I believe that loophole abuse is what ultimately happens when Group A tries to "draw a line" without sufficiently establishing a case for its legitimacy. Just as someone might try to wiggle out of an inconvenient legal istic obligation, they might try to do a similar thing here. Because people don't understand why the line exists and aren't really helped to do so by the people who want to impose that line, they try to come as close to the line as they can without "going over" and ending up with, for lack of a better expression, a Jack Thompson-esque situation on their hands.
So what is the issue here? I'm posing this question to the ratings boards and family advocacy groups. Should we be focusing on how much and what kinds of skin are shown? That sort of thing is easy to censor and easy to denote on the back of a box, but does it really matter in the big picture? I've seen or heard of way too many relationships falling apart because they were based on lust or some other selfish misuse of sex that didn't incorporate a mutual life-long commitment.
Even games like Mass Effect really fail to be believable in this area, because they basically involve relationships that resent sex options after a half a dozen conversations also, the game treats you like a really bad person if you explicitly decline a sex offer or tell a person that you don't have feelings for them, because you really don't get a nice way to do so. This is the sort of thing that is a lot more emotionally detrimental than nudity, but you simply can't censor lust or discern it at a glance, so I feel like that sort of censorship approach really misses the point of why this sort of thing would matter in the first place.
Intense and visceral games will receive Mature ratings, but from there, there's really not much of a "ceiling" they can hit — the only modern game I can think of that originally got an Adults Only rating from the ESRB U. Games such as Left 4 Dead 2 do not get banned or censored here like they do in some other territories. Again, I don't know how things work in other countries, but in the U.
It doesn't matter if a game lets you choose whether to kill the bandits or the townspeople if it already has a lot of blood or, conversely, if it has none at all. And this is a question that I pose not to the ratings boards because they don't seem to care but to the people I mentioned at the very beginning of this post — what is the issue here? To be honest, I don't have problems with killing a bunch of people or monsters or aliens in games, such as many of them are.
Why are you killing in the first place, more often than not? It's usually a matter of defending yourself or defending someone else, with themes such as petty revenge or outright murder seemingly being nothing more than a minority, and in many cases there's no "you started it" explanation to muddy the ethical waters.
Depictions that have been stylized to intentionally be emotional or brutal, would probably need to be discussed separately from depictions that are more "sterile" something like Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic or maybe Final Fantasy VII's battle sequences. There's no way you could be practical and go this deep in terms of censorship, of course.
It's hardly a stretch to say that intense violence can be extremely upsetting even for people who aren't "told" to be offended by it e. Sure, you're going to have kids who were playing Mortal Kombat since they were 9 [raises hand] and are fine, but the same won't be said of all kids, nor vice versa.
The combat, despite having near-identical mechanics to every other Halo game on paper, felt much more brutal and intense this time around, easily on par with the nightmarish chaos of Bioshock. So again, I don't know where to go from here, because I feel like there are several important issues here, both in terms of how combat is implemented, and the way it is being designed and shown. If it's a matter of "glamorizing killing," that raises a few logical questions in itself. Consider the rapid rise of first- and third-person shooters that emphasize online multiplayer modes alongside or even over those games' single-player offerings.
How do these play out in many cases? You kill someone — in real life, this would be an irreversible act with tons of consequences for their family, your family, your town, and so on — and they re-spawn a few seconds later. It's a more violent version of playing laser tag or maybe paintball. If this "trivializes" the seriousness of war violence, then I suppose it would raise the question of what kinds of pretend-fighting pastimes wouldn't 'trivialize' their more tragic equivalents.
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My biggest problem with this is when it shows up in games that otherwise try to portray war and killing as, at best, morally gray entities that lack the general- consensus "honor" of fighting alongside the Allies in World War II. Are we supposed to feel that killing for dubious reasons is stupid and wrong, or are we supposed to go online and have a blast doing just that all evening, in an environment where innocents can't suffer though it would kind of be interesting if you had to shoot around civilians in your deathmatches or incur penalties and where people get back up after they die?
In terms of campaign modes, it goes back to a question of context — is the nature of the killing justified and I'm guessing there's no way you'd ever incorporate this into game rating and censoring in a practical way in light of what's happening in the story? Is there some bigger issue at stake, even if it's as simple and basic as self- defense or rescuing a princess, to excuse the shedding of blood?
Should killing people, in games or in real life, be considered wrong in every circumstance? Intent is prior to content — Content in context, what is its intentional outcome on the player? As with all forms of media, the medium and content is the message to inform and influence behaviour.
To suggest otherwise is to ignore the moral influence on the viewer. The power for positive or negative outcomes, is there a limit? Governance should be providing a guideline to provide a balance of content and restricting content that has no positive value. Unfortunately where profit is concerned, the rules bend a great deal..
Timeline Table of controversial games Rele Develop ase Title Platform Reason s er date Controversial due to the controls being perceived as pink rubber bulges that were meant to Gotcha Arcade Atari represent breasts and were squeezed in order to control the action. Custer's For surviving, he was allowed to Atari Mystique Revenge have sex with her, and received points for doing so. This quickly led to controversy regarding whether he was raping her, or if she participated willingly.
Amstrad Epyx, Inc. Blood and gore, violence, and Arcade, Famicom some questionable enemies.